The Power of Probiotics to Combat Urinary Tract Infections: A Comprehensive Review

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Ali Qasemi
Milad Lagzian
Fateh Rahimi
Foad Khosravani Majd
Zeynab Bayat


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections and can cause significant morbidity, particularly in women. Recurrent UTIs are a significant clinical problem, and current prophylactic measures, such as antibiotics, are associated with side effects and the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Probiotics, defined as live microorganisms that confer health benefits to the host, have emerged as a potential alternative to traditional treatments for recurrent UTIs.

Probiotics can act by modulating the host's immune system, competitively excluding uropathogens, and producing antibacterial substances, such as bacteriocins. Clinical evidence supports the use of probiotics as a safe and effective intervention for the prevention and treatment of recurrent UTIs. However, selecting appropriate probiotic strains for UTIs can be challenging, and the safety and efficacy of probiotics depend on the strain, dosage, and timing of administration.

The safety profile of probiotics is generally excellent, and side effects are usually mild and self-limiting. However, certain populations, such as immunocompromised and critically ill patients, may be at increased risk of adverse events, and caution should be exercised when considering probiotic use in these populations. Strategies for ensuring probiotic safety and efficacy include adherence to good manufacturing practices, rigorous testing for the presence of contaminants, and standardization of dosing and administration protocols.

Despite the potential of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of recurrent UTIs, several challenges and limitations remain. These include limited access to high-quality probiotic products, challenges in selecting appropriate strains, and lack of consensus regarding optimal dosing and duration of probiotic use. Future research should focus on identifying optimal probiotic strains and regimens for the prevention and treatment of UTIs, understanding the role of gut microbiota in urogenital health, and developing new probiotic technologies and delivery methods.

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How to Cite
Qasemi, A., Lagzian, M., Rahimi, F., Khosravani Majd, F., & Bayat, Z. (2023). The Power of Probiotics to Combat Urinary Tract Infections: A Comprehensive Review. Research in Biotechnology and Environmental Science, 2(1), 1–11.
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