The Power of Nanovaccines in Immunotherapy of Melanoma, Lung, Breast, and Colon Cancers: A Comprehensive Review

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Seyedeh Ghazaleh Angaji
Mohammad Amin Salim
Alireza Azizi
Negin Amiri
Saeede Rastakhiz
Negar Jahani
Behnaz Akhlaghi
Parsa Ebrahimi Tirtashi


Scientists are exploring new approaches to overcome cancer, and nanovaccines have emerged as one of the most promising tools in the fight against cancer. This review aimed to provide a thorough overview of nanovaccines as potential cancer immunotherapy agents by describing their mechanism of action and potential therapeutic implications. The growing incidence of cancer underscores the urgent need for comprehensive strategies focusing on prevention, early detection, and innovative treatment modalities to control and mitigate the impact of this widespread disease effectively. It is important to note that nanovaccines are a cutting-edge platform with a wide range of applications in immunotherapy for colon, breast, lung, melanoma, and ovarian cancers. Nanoscale formulations of tumor-specific antigens and adjuvants can initiate an efficient and targeted immune response. Research on nanovaccines involving melanoma has shown that they can trigger potent anti-tumor immune responses, which permit prolonged survival and tumor regression. Furthermore, nanovaccines have been effective in treating breast cancer since they can modulate the tumor microenvironment and stimulate the presence of cytotoxic T cells within the tumor. The nanovaccines strategy has enhanced the immune system’s recognition of tumor antigens, resulting in tumor cell destruction and effective immune recognition. There have also been studies that have utilized nanovaccines to modify the immune response of tumor cells to immune checkpoint inhibitors, thereby improving the synergistic outcomes of colon cancer treatment. Besides improving the immune response to malignancies, nanovaccines represent a transformative approach to cancer immunotherapy. The presence of compelling results across various cancer types suggests that nanovaccines are a powerful tool in cancer treatment despite further research required to optimize their design and validate their clinical applicability.

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Angaji, S. G., Salim, M. A., Azizi, A., Amiri, N., Rastakhiz, S., Jahani, N., Akhlaghi, B., & Ebrahimi Tirtashi, P. (2023). The Power of Nanovaccines in Immunotherapy of Melanoma, Lung, Breast, and Colon Cancers: A Comprehensive Review. Research in Biotechnology and Environmental Science, 2(4), 55–64.
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